Get this from a library! Microelectronics: digital and analog circuits and systems. [ Jacob Millman]. Microelectronics: Digital and Analog Circuits and. Systems (McGraw-Hill series in electrical engineering). Jacob Millman. Click here if your download doesn"t. ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS. AND SYSTEMS. Jacob Millman, Ph.D. Professor of Electrical Engineering. Columbia University. Christos C. Halkias, Ph. D.

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At the point P this difference is zero, which means that no kinetic energy exists, so that the particle is at rest at this point. This distance X o is the maximum that the electron can travel from A.

Consider a point such as S which is at a greater distance than X o from electrode A. This is an impossible physical condition, however, since negative kinetic energy!

The foregoing analysis leads to the very important conclusion that the shaded portion of Fig. I-Ie can never be penetrated by the electron. Thus, at point P, the particle acts as if it had collided vvith a solid wall, hill, or barrier and the direction of its flight had been altered.

Potential-energy barriers of this sort play important role in the analyses of semiconductor devices. It must be emphasized that the words "collides with" or "rebounds from" a potential "hill" are convenient descriptive phrases and that an actual encounter between two material bodies is not implied. For a discussion of the energies involved in electronic devices, even the erg is much too large a unit.

This statement is not to be construed to mean that only minute amounts of energy can be obtained from electron devices. It is true that each electron possesses a tiny amount of energy, but as previously pointed out Sec.

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We begin with a review of the basic properties of matter leading to discrete electronic energy levels in atoms. Rutherford, in 1911, found that the atom consists of a nucleus of positive charge that contains nearly all the mass of the atom.

Surrounding this central positive core are negatively charged electrons. Yet a current of 1 pA is so small that considerable difficulty is experienced in attempting to measure it. The charge of a positive ion is an integral multiple of the charge of the electron, although it is of opposite sign.

For the case of singly ionized particles, the charge is equal to that of the electron. For the case of doubly ionized particles, the ionic charge is twice that of the electron.

The mass of an atom is expressed as a number that is based on the choice of the atomic weight of oxygen equal to The mass of a hypothetical atom of atomic weight unity is, by this definition, onesixteenth that of the mass of monatomic oxygen and has been calcuiorm lated to be 1.

A table of atomic weights is given in Table on p. The radius of the electron has been estimated as l5 m, and that of an atom as lo m.

These are so small that all charges are considered as mass points in the following sections. I n a semiconductor crystal such as silicon, two electrons are shared by each pair of ionic neighbors.

Such a configuration is called a covalent bond. Under certain circumstances an electron may be missing from this structure, leaving a ' hole" in the bond.

These vacancies in the covalent bonds may move from ion to ion in the crystal and constitute a current equivalent to that resulting from the motion of free positive charges.

The magnitude of the charge associated with the hole is that of a free electron.This band structure allows us to distinguish between an insulator, a semiconductor, and a metal.

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The components mentioned in Basic Electronics tutorial have their applications seen here. Since potential is the potential energy per unit charge, curve e is obtained from curve b by multiplying each ordinate by the charge on the electron a negative number.

Table of Contents: 1.

This very brief introduction to the concept of a hole as an effective charge carrier is elaborated upon in Chap.