Abstract. SEGAWA, Hugo; CREMA, Adriana and GAVA, Maristela. Revistas de arquitetura, urbanismo, paisagismo e design: a divergência de perspectivas. Ci. 30 nov. 1 (): Amazônia Moderna - Revista de Arquitetura e Urbanismo da Luana Martins, Murythely Toigo, Victória Macieski. p pdf. PDF | Photography is historically used to display architectural works to distant audience. Digital media, mainly the Internet, Gisele Pinna Braga é doutora em Arquitetura e Urbanismo; Pro- 2REVISTA THÉSIS | January.
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Revista Móbile. p. 1 / Embed or link this publication. Description. Resvista do CAU/SP - Conselho de Arquitetura e Urbanismo. Faculdade de Arquitetura e Urbanismo da Universidade de São Paulo, (tese de doutorado em PDF - Revista da Diretoria de Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, vol. ARTE, ARQUITETURA E URBANISMO MODERNOS EM SALVADOR EM .. da Bahia foi publicado em revistas brasileiras, como Arquitetura e Engenharia (n.
The architectural differs from the architecture in these terms, by accepting the outcome of the discipline for relationships defined in a space that cannot be fully anticipated through the planning process.
Thus, architecture is understood as a constructed and composed space based on social and cultural practices.
To obtain the opinion of the residents on the conditions of mobility in the region, the IVM has created different ways to interact with the population: through questionnaires, discussions and on-site workshops. This article will present how this participatory process occurred and what alternatives can be proposed to improve the conditions of access to the region.
The actual process of urbanization did not create the possibility to consider these empty spaces for the implementation of future public places, because the current fabric has been determined by uncontrolled, spontaneous and precarious urban movements.
The rest of the available spaces are areas of environmental preservation, inaccessible for any type of project implementation. This tension between the preservation of natural spaces and the lack of appropriate public spaces hinders planning polices and makes it necessary to rethink the interpretation of spatial opportunities in the region.
Reconsidering the notion of open space in the sense of a territorial gap, an interstitial and residual space of this unorganized urbanization, the passages form the territorial Inframince, as described by Marcel Duchamp, which stimulates a reflection on the improvement of these areas for the benefit of the population. Based on this change in perspective that regards the empty space as a substance to be revealed Perrault, , p.
Scattered around the territory and constantly implemented to achieve the ultimate level of accessibility, the passages are recurring urban elements and, therefore, spatial tools that, because of their diverse characteristics and the actual void that creates them, offer a selection of spatial opportunities. Based on this consideration, the IVM study proposes a new urban interpretation method, enabling the open space provided by the network of existing passages in the territory to serve as a base for multifunctional projects that go beyond the simple need of people moving from place to place.
These primitive paths, originally made of dirt, and which preceded the construction of roads by the government, are now fragmented by the divisions created by the different roads that were built as part of the expansion policies for major car arteries in the mids.
Compounded by the integration with the future BRT, the road network crystallized a section between the different districts of the region and amplified the effect of territorialization, by impeding pedestrian crossings and transversal mobility. The increased population growth that began in the s led to an important densification of residential areas, including in areas of geomorphological risk that are completely disconnected from the road network.
Here, the passages are still the only available guaranteed access.
Dictated by the needs of the residents to provide access to areas without street access, the passages present an alternative network that is virtually invisible on official area mappings, and therefore falls outside the priorities of public planning.
The first task step in recognizing the existence of these passages in the area required an assessment of these places to show the spatial networks they form. The mapping of each passage highlighted the substantial presence of alleyways, shortcuts, stairways and alleys in the region, whose function of urban connection was depicted through the cartographies made by the research team. The team conducted a chrono-morphological analysis based on simulations of access to the territory on foot average speed of 3.
The projections with stairways clearly demonstrated far superior access to the coverage area, which we can call macro-accessibility based on micro-mobility, and confirm the need to consider this informal network when addressing the issue of general accessibility.
The alternative use of passages Furthermore, in addition to offering a network for people to move between locations, the passages also form the only available public space for the use of the population. The passage serves as a meeting place and its hybrid function promotes spontaneous places where people can spend time. The cultural spaces demonstrated a great capacity to spread throughout the territory and challenge the lack of adequate facilities.
This cultural network promoted its own increasingly dense and more impactful synergy, using the passage as a playful platform of cultural expressions that exceeds the initial role of the street, narrow alleyway or staircase. Some of these manifestations in the region that today form the social landmarks in the heart of communities have been implanted directly into the residual space of existing passages.
The example of the Cine Degrau translation: Cinema on the Steps in Jardim Guaruja, where people occupy the stairway to watch movies, and the Samba da Rua 2 Street 2 Samba , where samba music is played in an alley of the Jardim Nakamura community, perfectly illustrate the appropriation of residual spaces once deemed undesirable the stairways were notorious for robberies and Rua 2 was known for being a frequent body dump , transforming these spaces into the main cultural stage of the favela.
Researchers observed alternative delivery modes for correspondence, products and orders that were the direct result of resident initiatives. For example, a human chain was formed to transport building materials from a street to the inaccessible part of the favela, by passing the materials from person to person.
A culture space, a place to allow for the movement of people and goods, each passage is connected to others and outlines an urban landscape that illustrates how people get around and live in the territory. But this landscape is fragile and threatened by the physical precariousness of these routes that are often difficult to access, dangerous at night, and even occupied by organized drug gangs.
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Vertical mobility The first axis of the participatory research process was to register the type of use of the passages, and what opinion have the residents about those spaces, to determine the implementation of priority actions.
The study evaluated the perception of the users of these stairways and the technical information provided by the team. Both assessments were based on seven criteria: safety, protection, accessibility, versatility, attractiveness, connectivity and resilience.
Four of these stairways were then selected as a relevant sample of the different configurations and typologies of stairways in the region. Next, the study measured the flow of people and conducted a geometric assessment.
The stairway near a school saw an intensification of the flow of users before the start and after the end of the two daily school sessions. The children interviewed on this stairway indicated the lack of a place close to school where they could spend time, play and interact with their friends before going home.
The stairs in the area feature a variety of geometries and contexts: straight, zigzag, with or without a landing to rest, enclosed between two walls, or connected to the entrances of homes. However, they all share a precarious state with a lack of adequate lighting at night and handrails, irregularly shaped steps, a lack of trees to shade the passageway from the sun and the lack of a drainage system which makes the stairways impossible to use on rainy days.
In the interviews, most residents complained about these issues and made very basic suggestions for improvements — change the lighting, install a bench or a handrail…- that affirms the lack of comfort in these places.
Most residents also noted the issue of a lack of safety. Depending on the time of day, residents ask a family member to accompany them or they change their route to avoid a passageway that is known for robberies or drug dealing.
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That is, the lack of security or minimal material conditions end up eliminating the essential nature of these passages Smets, Photos: C. Source: Cidade Ativa. Source: Cidade Ativa on-site measurements. Located in Jardim Nakamura, the school has students, including primary and secondary school students. Using a questionnaire, the goal of the study was to determine how the children get from home to school, what their impressions are along the way and to try to translate their perceptions of the urban environment, its qualities, defects, insecurities etc.
Most children indicated a sense of danger as they walked along the main roads and the difficulty in crossing the road due to the inadequacy of traffic lights and an insufficient number of crosswalks. In fact, even for short distances, the trajectory to school is usually conducted by school transportation, to prevent the children from having to cross these roads.
Clássicos da Arquitetura: Pavilhão de Nova York 1939 / Lucio Costa e Oscar Niemeyer
However, the choice of safer transportation has a greater impact than simply increasing traffic; motorized transportation disassociates the children from their urban environment and distorts their spatial perception.
The study has shown that many students misrepresented their home-school-home itinerary, describing much greater distances and more complex trajectories than in reality. When the children travel on foot, they describe the itinerary very accurately, both in terms of the distance and the details along the way, as is the case of the main stairways located in front of the school, which features in various representations.
Verdi sculpture; Access Formosa; Orchestras rehearsal room; Dance rehearsal room; Music rehearsal room; Terrace; Administration; Concert hall; Dressing room; Garden terrace; Access between buildings; Chorus rehearsal room; Our entry was considered a prank.
To take the car far away from the ground and onto a thin, elevated metallic structure that would cut the valley in two, as a highline. No tunnels or water collectors, all in order to free space for people by creating a park, a garden or a major plaza for all of those who live in or pass by the city. Neither more nor less than the litany that we constantly preach and listen to. In both cases the design intentions were explicit.
We tried to understand what was obsolete, without use or function, that which was now out-dated from our previous urban design; a design that configured the city of the 19th century which had deteriorated together with contemporary anachronism. Today, the houses or small buildings with back-yard gardens belonging to the long Portuguese sites are no longer justified.
They usually end up generating an empty void. Empty in both a physical and figurative sense: without buildings or use. These are the square meters that contribute to real estate profit, in the perverse calculation of coefficients and floor area ratios considered by building industry, something far from the social function of property.
What is surprising is that they are actual areas, spaces that have lost their useful features.More information. The passage, well beyond its primary function, is seen here as an enhanced space, subject to different spatial interpretations, a symbol of urban versatility that impregnates the most undervalued places where free space is scarce and, therefore, has a great potential for intertwined uses. Advanced Engineering Informatics, v.
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