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Submucosa refers to a layer of tissue beneath a mucous N-acetylated Acidic sugar amino sugar membrane. While two of these CH3 n categories are proteins, proteoglycans are mostly carbohydrate in their structure.

Repeating disaccharide unit of GAGs. Proteoglycans Proteoglycans are aggregates of GAGs and proteins. GAGs are also known as mucopolysaccharides and are composed of repeat- ing disaccharide chains where one of the sugars is an N-acetylated amino sugar, either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine Figure 2.

Tether together

Most GAGs are sulfated. They are organized in long, unbranched chains. GAGs contain mul- tiple negative charges and are extended in solution. The most preva- lent GAG is chondroitin sulfate. Other GAGs include hyaluronic acid, keratin sulfate, dermatan sulfate, heparin, and heparan sulfate.

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Characteristics of proteoglycans: Because of their net negative surface charges, GAGs repel each other. In solution, GAGs tend to slide past each other, producing the slippery consistency we associate with mucous secretions.

Cartilage matrix lining the knee joint has large quantities of GAGs and is also rich in collagen.

This cartilage is tough, resilient, and resistant to compression. The bones of the joint are cushioned by the water balloon—like structure of the hydrated GAGs in the cartilage.

When compressive forces are exerted on it, the water is forced out and the GAGs occupy Compression Squeezes out a smaller volume Figure 2. This change in hydration glycosaminoglycans.

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Structure of proteoglycans: With the exception of hyaluronic H2O acid, GAGs are found covalently attached to protein and form proteoglycan monomers. These monomers consist of a core H 2O protein with GAGs extending out from it and remaining separated Rehydration Relaxation from each other owing to charge repulsion.

In cartilage proteogly- Allows water molecules Glycosaminoglycans cans, the GAGs include chondroitin sulfate and keratin sulfate. The to reassociate with return to their original glycosaminoglycans. The individual GAG chains resemble needles on an evergreen tree and the core protein, a Figure 2. The trunk of the tree is the hyaluronic acid, as individual Resilience of GAGs.

Extracellular Matrix 11 proteoglycan aggregates. The association occurs primarily through Top view ionic interactions between the core protein and the hyaluronic acid and is stabilized by smaller, link proteins.

Proteoglycan Use of glucosamine as therapy for osteoarthritis Keratin sulfate Osteoarthritis is the most common form of joint disease and the leading cause of pain and physical disability in elderly persons.

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Views Total views.Phalloidin is known to inhibit cell movement due to its inhibition of actin. This goal would have been served by more systematic cross referencing between the various narrower topics so as to reduce redundancies.

Lipids with attached carbohydrate sugars. Cell- III.

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Proteins are very large molecules—macro-biopolymers—made from monomers called amino acids. The diameter of the contractile ring progressively decreases.

How- ever, the authors, editors, and publisher are not responsible for errors or omissions or for any consequences from application of the information in this book and make no warranty, expressed or implied, with respect to the currency, completeness, or accuracy of the contents of the publication. Because adhesion molecules are widely expressed on human cells and because viruses need a host binding protein to initiate infection, adhesion molecules may sometimes serve in this role.